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I've got the following information. It shows a partial picture.

It seems that in many cases (most cases for L3) agents use ARP to discover the route. By this, it simulates behavior of the real L2/L3 network components. According to Assaf Muller the current version of neutron L3 agent does not support any sort of dynamic routing, and a Neutron virtual router may only have access to up to one external network. It can be (Directly) connected to many internal networks and performs static routing. If you connect a router to one external network (8.8.8.0/24) and two internal networks (10.0.1.0/24, 10.0.2.0/24) then you can observe the router's routing table and see that it has three routes to said network, as well as a default gateway (The external network's gateway). L3 agent has a period task (1 minute hardcoded) that gets all of the routers hosted on the agent from the DB. If some error condition is met, then the periodic task doesn't do anything.