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Thanks all ! here is the summary for this issue.

solution 1: rebuild the qemu-kvm rpm

first , install yum tuils packages

yum groupinstall -y "Development Tools"
yum install -y yum-utils rpm-build

download qemu source rpm to loacal

yumdownloader --source qemu-kvm
mkdir -p ~/rpmbuild/{BUILD,RPMS,SOURCES,SPECS,SRPMS}
echo '%_topdir %(echo $HOME)/rpmbuild' > ~/.rpmmacros

Extract rpm

rpm -ivh qemu-kvm-*
cd ~/rpmbuild/SPECS

vi qemu-kvm.spec

modify the spec , find the '--block-drv-rw-whitelist' parameter and append the 'rbd' to the end,then rebuild the souce code.

rpmbuild -bb qemu-kvm.spec

if meet the pacakge dependency error ,you can use 'yum' install them then build again, after the build successful, you can see the package exist in ../RPMS/x86_64/

then delete the old package without rbd support like this:

rpm -e --nodeps qemu-img
rpm -e --nodeps qemu-kvm
rpm -e --nodeps qemu-kvm-tools

solution 2: use the fedora rpm directly.

I see the qemu-kvm rpm have been supported the rbd function on fedora20 directly, i think you can use them also .

http://fedora.xfree.com.ar/linux/updates/20/x86_64/