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/var/lib/nova/instances/$UUID contains information about the instance with that UUID. console.log contains the startup messages of an instance. If the instance uses ephemeral storage (i.e., not volume storage) for its root filesystem, one of the files in this directory may be the instance's root filesystem, often in qcow2 format. However, even ephemeral storage can be configured differently, for example in an LVM volume on the compute node. There are several configuration options.

To manually set up two storage nodes that use LVM backends, follow the installation guide. In short, you are right - you install Cinder-Volume, target software and a few supporting services on storage nodes.

You can then map the storage nodes to two different volume types so that users can select the node by selecting the type. If users don't specify a type, Cinder will use the default type you have configured. If you don't configure a default type, see below.

If the two storage nodes have no different types, the storage node on which a new volume is created depends on factors like the number of volumes, or gigabytes reserved. I am not 100% certain; see the Cinder Scheduler documentation.