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does the additional controller node automatically get connected to the same openstack environment

No. You have to install it so that it gets connected to the environment. For example, you will have to create a database and message queue configuration to which both controllers are connected.

do these 3 controller nodes take on different roles or do they basically perform the same tasks?

You can configure them either way.

You will benefit from studying one of the commercial OpenStack architectures. While SUSE OpenStack cloud has been discontinued, the documentation is still available, and I happen to have some familiarity with it, so here is a picture of a three-controller setup: https://documentation.suse.com/soc/8/single-html/suse-openstack-cloud-planning/#ControlPlane1. And here a description (sadly, no picture) of the so-called mid-range deployment, which features several controllers with different roles such as core, metering, database/messaging, and networking: https://documentation.suse.com/soc/8/single-html/suse-openstack-cloud-planning/#mid-scale-kvm.

do the load automatically get distributed among the 3 controller nodes? If one of the controller nodes go down, does that mean the other 2 nodes will take on what that one was doing so no operation would be disrupted?

OpenStack doesn't have high-availability built-in; you need to add something like HA-Proxy. Luckily, due to the stateless nature of most OpenStack services, this is not too hard. The picture above will help you.