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Problem is solved. Thanks to this question. But I want to provide a more detailed answer:

The transport_url in the nova_api database was not correct. I must have overseen that while investigating the error.

I think I misstyped it during the installation process and changed/corrected it later. But the transport_url in the database was not updated.

You can verfiy it with a oneliner:

I've used nova as username to login to the database.

➜ root@horizon /root # mysql -unova -p nova_api -e "select id,transport_url from cell_mappings where transport_url='$(grep transport_url /etc/nova/nova.conf | grep -o rabbit.*$)';"

or step by step for manual comparsion:

➜ root@horizon /root # grep transport_url /etc/nova/nova.conf | grep -o rabbit.*$
rabbit://openstack:RABBIT_PASS@horizon.aurora.local

➜ root@horizon /root # mysql -unova -p nova_api
Enter password:

MariaDB [nova_api]> select id,transport_url from cell_mappings;
+----+------------------------------------------------------+
| id | transport_url                                        |
+----+------------------------------------------------------+
|  1 | none:///                                             |
|  2 | rabbit://openstack:RABBIT_PASS@horizon.aurora.local |
+----+------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.001 sec)

MariaDB [nova_api]>

In my case the passwords were different and I updated the transport_url by hand:

MariaDB [nova_api]> update cell_mappings set transport_url="rabbit://openstack:RABBIT_PASS@horizon.aurora.local" where id=2;

My last question is:

Is there a command which updates the transport_url in the nova_api database and why and when are some nova services using the credentials of nova.conf and some the one provided by the database?