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Most of my problems were probably related to Virtualbox networking. I've now switched the provider interface to NAT on both nodes (controller/compute) and re-created the provider network. It now seems to work. Next step would be to use a bridged interface in order to test floating ip capabilities (which I'm not able to test with NAT of course). Some important commands for networking troubleshooting:

root@controller-01:~# ip netns list
qdhcp-222197c6-cc31-42d5-9165-c2421ca73b25 (id: 0)
qrouter-f4908af9-a0ee-49a9-85d3-6d872d788946 (id: 2)
qdhcp-567c890a-c527-4f11-9b82-5cfe031c89a7 (id: 1)

root@controller-01:~# ip netns exec qrouter-f4908af9-a0ee-49a9-85d3-6d872d788946 route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         10.0.2.2        0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 qg-ccda1db5-d8
10.0.2.0        0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 qg-ccda1db5-d8
172.16.1.0      0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 qr-a00da6af-e2

root@controller-01:~# ip netns exec qrouter-f4908af9-a0ee-49a9-85d3-6d872d788946 ping 8.8.8.8
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=10.1 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=8.40 ms
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=9.24 ms

I forgot about this after a long time off from Openstack, but they are fundamental. If you are not able to ping the "outside world" from the router's namespace, there's no chance you'll be able to do it from an instance. Hope this helps. Also let me know if you have any other advice or tell me if I've misinterpreted something.

Thanks everybody for your help